Chapter five language and worldview
Language relativism is the concept which implies that a particular language both reflects and shapes the worldview of the people who use it. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the idea that language greatly shapes the insights and worldview of its speakers (Perlovsky 520). The languages that particular people speak shape their view of reality and, thus, influence them to perceive the world in a specific way. Features of language and vocabulary may influence opinions by misleading its speakers intuitively to filter out properties of reality for other features.
Semantic rules help people to understand the meaning of individual words while syntactic rules govern the way symbols are arranged. Pragmatic rules guide an individual about what to use and interpret the message in the given context. The coordinated management of relevant theory suggests that pragmatic rules are to be used to create and decipher messages in the manners they see it. On the other hand, language connection involves the individuals into demonstrating a unison with other people. Convergence is the process of adapting an individuals speech style to match that of another with whom the communicator intends to identify. Divergence is seen as the stressing differentiation through the use of verbal words. Researches argue that a robust language is the one that has the power to make clear declarations and assertions, contrary to powerless speeches that are characterized by hesitations and indirect hedges.
The language of responsibility reflects the speakers willingness to be accounted for their actions, feelings, and beliefs. It statements replace the pronoun me and I, which avoids responsibility for ownership of message. But statements have the effect of canceling a thought that follows it. I statement is the way of accepting responsibility. We implies joint responsibility and concerns for both the receiver and the speaker. Static evaluation contains the word that makes the erroneous assumption that certain things or individuals are unchanging and consistent. Abstraction ladder is the convenient way of generalizing resemblances between people, objects, ideas, or events. There are several reasons for communicating which include building and maintaining relationships. Men often use it for joking and teasing, while women, on the other hand, focus on relationships, feelings, and personal problems.
Chapter seven - listening
Listening forms an integral part of communication. It involves identification, comprehension, appropriate response, and accurate interpretation of answers. Studies argue that the process of listening is psychological, and it incorporates listening to the perceived sounds. Moreover, a mindful listener is the one that pays a careful attention to details.
Elements of listening
Attending during listening is critical, as it is the extra step of making an effort to focus attention on both the presence and the communication of another person. Understanding is the process of making sense of the messages conveyed, which enables a person to interpret the meaning. Remembering refers to recalling information that contributes to perceptions of competence in interactions (Buendia 150). Responding involves providing feedback that notifies others that you have received and understood their message.
Types of ineffective listening
There are several types of ineffective listening that among others include pseudo listening. It occurs when one only pretends to listen while he or she is not paying attention to what the interlocutor is talking about. Selective listening involves an individual focusing only on the small bits of information that is of interest to them while disregarding the rest of the information. When an individual displays aggressive behavior while listening, he or she can be described to be indulging in defensive listening since they may fail to fully comprehend the message. On the other hand, insensitive listening arises when such persons ambush or attack the one speaking which results in hurtful listening. Insensitive learning occurs when an individual fails to pay attention to the emotional content of ones message.
You can get online help with essay writing from qualified writers!
Chapter eight - formation of a relationship
The similarity in relationships helps couples since the more similar the personalities are, the more likely they are to be happy. For adults, the similarity is most important to relational happiness than communication skills. One theory about why similarity attracts people is that it provides a measure of ego support. Attraction is stronger when people are highly similar to each other in certain areas.
Complementarity occurs when a couple is different in various ways, yet their differences force them to attract. Differences strengthen a relationship when they are complementary when the characteristics of one person satisfy the other. Studies argue that reciprocal attraction occurs when people approved by others bolster their feelings of self-esteem. Competence is seen when individuals prefer to surround themselves with talented people hoping to adopt their skills and abilities. On the other hand, certain people are uncomfortable around those who are more competent. Disclosure happens when individuals reveal important information about themselves to gain sympathy from others.
Proximity entails the likelihood to develop relationships with people we interact frequently. Often, proximity leads to adoration. Rewards in a relationship are based on the semi-economic model called the social exchange theory.
Models of relational development
Mark Knapp created the model in 1978 on the basic principles of social penetration. He took the basic ideas of depth and breadth in which a relationship develops, advances, and creates several stages.
Stage 1 Initiating
The stage when you first encounter someone and make your choice on whether or not you want to initiate a conversation.
Stage 2 Experimenting
The stage of the model when one tries to find out the anonymous. During the stage, an individual tries to find common ground with another person whereby numerous inquiries will be asked. Therefore, small talk is the key part of the stage.
Stage 3 Intensifying
The pair starts to reach close associates. The level of self-disclosure is relatively deep, and when talking, the pair starts to refer to each other as we instead of you and me (Field 6).
Stage 4 Integrating
Integrating is the coupling stage when each of the individuals starts using the same nonverbal and verbal cues that were created by them as a couple.
Stage 5 Bonding
The stage is about going open to the public to show the commitment to each other. The pair becomes married, and communication remains at its highest. Sometimes communication does not have to occur as the couple already knows what the other wants or is going to say. Besides, friends and families are usually blended.
Chapter nine - intimacy and distance in relational communication
Relationships require love, which comprises of three elements that are passion, intimacy, and commitment. Intimacy deals with communication, closeness and affection between the partners. Relation commitment entails providing affection, maintaining respect, sharing companionship, providing emotional support, and maintaining an effort to communicate regularly. Several factors maintain a successful relationship, such as positivity, openness, sharing tasks, and maintaining social networks.
A healthy relationship requires verbal communication. Besides, partners ought to take responsibility for their transgression. They should work on relationship problems together which creates a positive relationship atmosphere between them. If one partner disrespects the other, whoever is responsible should have a sincere apology with an explicit acknowledgment. Details, such as a partners concerns, needs, and frustrations should be communicated verbally.
The partners having a similar objective base a great relationship on the virtues of mutual involvement. A family survives peacefully when each member wants happiness and peace. Two young partners envision their future together, and both prefer similar things. Henceforth, their relationship is founded on the objective to live together on an intimate and romantic basis. Intellectual sharing brings together different people. When a relationship works towards a similar goal, whatever it may be, they are viewed as being part of the relationship (Rossetto 569). Consequently, trust and integrity are the main pillars of a good relationship. Partners have a good relationship with individuals they trust and respect. Integrity is the admiration for individuals elicited by their qualities, abilities, or achievements.
In conclusion, a strong relationship where two or more individuals are connected through marriage, blood, or mutual affection, needs a constant dose of integrity, openness, shared objectives, and communication. Long-distance relationship can exist when the concerned spouses portray concerns, productive sharing on all matters, and continued romance. There will be hard times and discouragements, but when partners agree and embrace acceptance on relational transgressions, the hard times become easier to overcome. When the relationship is premised on love and undying trust, it is self-assured to survive the challenging moments.
Chapter ten - improving communication climates
Communication climate is the emotional tone of a relationship describing the way individuals feel about each other as they carry out their activities. Messages that confirm communication are the ones conveying that a person is important. On the other hand, disconfirming communication shows a lack of regard that the person is irrelevant. Types of confirming messages include recognition, endorsement, and acknowledgment. Interrupting, ambiguous response, incongruous response, and defensiveness are not the strong forms of responses. Recognizing the other person is an essential confirmation, for instance, saying hi, while acknowledging feelings and ideas is shown through listening. Endorsing requires one to state claims such as, I understand. Interrupting shows a lack of concern for what the other person has to say while an ambiguous response highlights more than one meaning for a response, thereby, leaving the other individual unsure of the response.
Moreover, there are incongruous responses that contain two messages contradicting each other. For example, Oh baby, I am sorry. I am sure you are having a difficult time. The message is not caring or acknowledging. A defensive response is whereby the individuals attempt to protect themselves by contorting a counteracting message. The image can be a socially approved identity that the individual tries to present.
Elements of communication
Certain elements that contribute to effective communication include behavior, feelings, intentions, interpretation, and consequence. Behavior describes the raw material which the person reacts only to the facts and does not assign judgment or meaning. For instance, one partner says to the another, I have noticed we do not spend much time together recently, yet you seem to spend a lot with your colleagues. Feelings express the emotion behind what the individual is saying (Mitchell 218). An intention explains what a person wants or what will happen next, while the interpretation explains the relevance attached to the other persons behavior. The consequence explains the outcome and is important since it enables a person to realize why one is bothered or pleased by anothers behavior. Besides, it can help to clarify the difficulty and avoid a conflict in future
Types of disconfirming messages
Studies indicate that disconfirming messages may vary to include impervious replies and inappropriate responses. An impervious answer is the one that symbolically involves an individual snubbing the other or simply not responding back. Irrelevant responses include comments that are unrelated to what the other person said.