Criminal Law Reaction Essay
The international community pays great attention to the legal framework to combat terrorism and extremism. Since terrorism acquired an international character, the only way to eliminate it should be done at the international level. In this way, there are difficulties associated primarily with specific national regulations. So, there is the task of determining the unification of these standards, and understanding the relevant organization of terrorist groups and cells. It is encouraging to note that the vast majority of countries understand this and goes to the rapprochement of legislation in this area. This process in combination with other forms of struggle against terrorism can reduce the level of this universal threat. Critical reaction on Chapters 7 and 8 of Terrorist Recognition Handbook a Practitioner's Manual for Predicting and Identifying Terrorist Activities evaluates personal understanding as major criteria in terrorist group organization and terrorist cells.
Terrorist Group Organization and Terrorist Cells (Critical Reaction)
A characteristic feature of terrorism is the presence of terrorist ideology, ideological and political platforms of the respective activities of terrorist organizations of various directions. The content and focus of these platforms usually determine the general strategic line of terrorist activities of various organizations, their goals, and objectives. Also, it evaluates specific relationships in terrorist cells implementing terrorist acts from its organization to conduction.
The objective of terrorism is characterized by the results which are aimed at achieving through the activities of terrorist organizations. The heads of terrorist organizations within the closest group determine the choice of objects of terrorist acts, as well as methods and means of their commission. Depending on the subject of terrorism and its focus its activities can be classified into domestic and foreign policy goals.
Terrorist ideology provided by a single leader of a group of leaders may include change of the political regime and social structure of the country, undermining the authority of the government and the faith of the population in its ability to protect its legitimate rights and interests, destabilization of the political situation, embarrassment and disruption of activities of governing bodies or rival political parties and organizations. Some acts are called to provoke public authorities and stimulate them to act, which may compromise them in the eyes of the population, or to raise the profile of terrorists.
But, modern terrorism should be determined as a complex field of activity. The organizational and technical component of this activity has become increasingly complex and refined. A terrorist act is just the tip of the iceberg, the base of which consists of activities ensuring the attacks. Realization of terrorist acts includes planning, provision of information, coordination with other political factors, financial and technical support, training, intelligence and counterintelligence aspects of organization and impact of possible results, political and financial use of the terrorist attacks.
Terrorism is a complex and resource-intensive enterprise. As the transformation of terrorism into the industry became real, training of terrorists becomes a complex activity. It includes selection, ideological and psychological training which is complex and multifaceted. The training system is similar to that of security officers, agents, and saboteurs. In today's terrorism, there are two strategies. One comes right from training to mass terrorism and brings down on the enemy's head array of hastily trained militants. The second focuses on the training of few specialists with extra class features.
It should be noted that terrorists are constantly excelling in the methods of implementation of their plans. Due to this fact, some methods of terrorist activities have undergone significant modifications, especially in recent years, while others are of relatively recent origin.
For organization and implementation of specific terrorist acts, subordinate strategic and tactical objectives of terrorism, extremist structures generate tasks that are objectives of terrorism due to domestic and foreign policy. For example, these policies are called to destabilize the political situation in the country, eliminate obstacles for the implementation of assassinations and bombings to intimidate the population of a region, implement violent acts against the senior government, law enforcement officials, and leaders of public organizations supporting the government. Failure in accomplishing the objectives of international actions to resolve the acute ethnic conflicts may be aggravated by terrorists through creating the danger for representatives of international organizations while staying in a particular region, provoking new outbreaks of ethnic hatred, and so on.
The purpose of showing a negative attitude toward a country's foreign policy can be achieved through setting proper tasks for the terrorist organization. These can include seizing diplomatic and other representatives of a foreign country as hostages, interfering in normal activities of its institutions through explosions of their premises, sending disturbing messages about upcoming acts of violation.
In accordance with the objectives put forward the terrorist organization defines specific targets of terrorist attacks, determines the need for manpower and equipment to carry out acts of violence, procedures for their use, and so on.
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Like most social phenomena terrorism has a very complex nature, its emergence and development depend on many factors, among which the most important are geopolitical, socio-economic, religious, and cultural. Of course, they do not exhaust the whole variety of factors that influence the genesis and development of this social phenomenon. Terrorist group organizations and terrorist cells play a principal role on each level and type of terrorism. Respectful understanding of these aspects plays a principal role in preventing terrorist acts and international struggle with terrorist movement.