American Democracy Now
The original intent of the president was to serve as the commander of the armed forces, appoint the heads of executive offices, sign treaties, convene the congress, commission all officers of the US, welcome ambassadors of other countries and give the state of the union address to the congress.
Change in Presidential Office
There has been an increase of power to a high magnitude. It is partly because of the skillful use of powers not granted by the constitution. Years soon after independence there was a phenomenal increase of the power of the presidency while the 20th century witnessed an increase in presidential authority, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected. Franklin D. Roosevelt created much bureaucracies resulting to a descriptive term imperial presidency (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). Early presidents, particularly Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson, expanded the presidential powers by assuming the leadership in parties, application of the principle of inherent powers, and emphasis in populism (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). There have been changes in the nature and realm of the powers of the presidency in the 20th century, particularly in the reign of Franklin D. Roosevelt, to the influence of the federal governments.
The framework for strong American presidents diminished drastically after Roosevelt, particularly during Nixons administration, after the Pentagon Papers view of the presidency by the public. The Watergate scandal affected the imperial presidency during Nixons administration, diminishing it. However the holders of the presidential office after Nixon increasingly made it very powerful institution forcing the congress to attempt to check its powers (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). Back in the 1970s the presidency made the congress the epicenter of power in the federal governments, limiting its participation in the foreign policy realms. Today, the powers of presidency are checked by the House of Representatives, which can impeach the president in the event of an offence.
Constitutional Responsibilities of the President
President is the chief executive, serving as the leader of the nation in both the national and international policy initiatives. The president also has a responsibility as the chief of state. Here, he plays a role in the embodiment of the values and ideas of the US. He is the symbol of national leadership. In the United States, the president has the responsibility to promote national unity as the national leader. The president is usually the chief military commander (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). He has the responsibility to command the entire military personnel. The president also serves another role as the chief diplomatic officer of the United States. This way, he spearheads the shaping and the administration of the foreign policy of the United States. Some of the domestic responsibilities of the president include, but are not limited to the responsibility as the chief legislator and the chief economist of the nation (Harrison, & Harris, 2011).
President Informal Duties
These duties are under the executive privilege that the president enjoys. Some of these duties include: the president has a duty to safeguard information that is confidential, regarding the national security. The president has a duty not to disclose such information to anyone who is not concerned in the matter, including the congress and the courts. The president also has a duty to seek advice from aides for issues that they know best (Harrison, & Harris, 2011).
Impact on Technology on Presidency
Technology affects various perspectives concerning presidential elections and their administration. Technology has proven important in the announcement of important events before presidential elections. Many presidents appeared on television to announce their bids for the presidency. In 2008 president Barrack Obama announced his bid through a YouTube video. The use of the world-wide-web and television to connect with the public has increased the public involvement in the public affairs in the office of president, promoting democracy (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). Technological platforms, such as twitter and Facebook, have been instrumental in conveying public views to the president and government officials. It has been of importance in protecting and promoting the presidents popularity.
The chief justice presides supreme courts in many countries with justice systems practicing the English common law. He can be selected in many ways. President of the Supreme Court as the leader during private deliberations is often the first to voice an opinion.
This judicial interpretation encourages judges to check the exercise of their own power. It helps the judges to hesitate to strike down laws that are constitutional. It observes that judicially restrained judges must respect stare decisis.
A judicial ruling is considered an act of activism when a court is suspected of doing it based on the personal or political take instead of on existing law. Judicial activism is a controversial political issue that erodes peoples trust on the judicial system of the country, particularly the United States.
In this tax system, the same percentage of tax on income from every person is applied, no matter how much the income is. People with higher income pay higher income tax as compared to what those with less income pay.
This term is applied in personal income taxes, where people with more net income pay higher tax than do those with less income. It is imposed in order to reduce the tax incidence of people with a lower ability-to-pay.
Regulated Capitalist Economy
It is an economy in which the state regulation affects credit and government financial operations. The dominance of private capitalist in the ownership of the means of production locks out the possibility of distribution of capital investments. To curb it, the government introduces regulations (Harrison, & Harris, 2011).
It is derived from the supreme nature of the executive branch in its area of Constitutional activity. The US President and members of the executive branch were given the authority to resist certain interventions by the legislature and judicially to access information and personnel relating to the executive branch.
Discretionary spending allows the lawmakers to use a number of ways to determine how money needs to be assigned. Some turn to corporations that profit from government resources to get to know how much money they need. Studies may be done to identify potential areas, where government spending could be adjusted.
Instructed Delegate vs. Trustee Models
In trustee model the legislator votes and acts according to his/her own personal beliefs as well as in what he/she feels is best for the society. They are, therefore, very personal and assume that the voters trust that the elected legislator can make right decisions. The decisions made by the trustees are very personal and can severely affect what logical for a given issue is. The other way that a person can act in congress is to be an instructed delegate (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). An instructed delegate is presumed to be an agent of the voters. The instructed delegates voting is influenced by what the people want.
Presidential Honeymoon Period
When a newly elected president assumes office the opposition is not politically critical of him or her for about three months. It is a custom that has developed over time and not mandated by the law. It assumes that the newly elected president is new to the office and that he or she needs some time to significantly impact the countrys leadership.
Reapportionment is redistribution of representation in any of the US legislative body. It involves periodic re-allotment of congressional seats in the US based on the changes in the figures of the census, as directed by the Constitution. Reapportionment is done after every census. It occurs after every ten years of the census. Censuses are taken to identify the percentages of culture, race, and ethnic backgrounds. The information generated from the census is then used to restructure the House of Representatives (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). Impact of reapportionment: the number of senators in the House from each state is influenced by population of that state. Reapportionment changes the number of members of the House of Representative to be elected by each state. The reapportionment also influences size of each states representation in the Electoral College. Each state also determines the boundaries of congressional districts in a process called redistricting (Harrison, & Harris, 2011).
The Senate consists of 100 members, while the House of Representative has 435 members (based on the states population). Senators service term is six years long, while the representatives term is two years long. In accordance to the Constitution, senators must be 30 or more years old, while representatives can be in service starting at age 25. Only the House can propose taxation and revenue bills, and determine whether an official of the government can be tried for committing crimes against the United States. Only Senate but not the House of Representatives can confirm treaties, and confirm or reject appointments made by the president (Harrison, & Harris, 2011). Also, only Senate can conduct a trial against officials of the government for crimes against the United States. The president of the House is the Speaker, who is elected by vote of the majority of representatives of the ruling political party at the time. The advantage of a two-tier legislature is that it allows for an equitable representation for both small and large states. The US states with significantly large inhabitants are gratified because the number of legislatures in the House of Representatives is determined by population. Less inhabited states are also contented because the number of representatives of the Senate is equal. A drawback of bicameral Congress is the recurrent gridlock seen in the Congress, where even if the House can pass a bill, it still has to make it through the Senate (Harrison, & Harris, 2011).